1685

Contents:

Adversariorum Methodus [English version] (February?)

Adversariorum Methodus [Latin version] (March?)

Draft C (unknown)

Hypothesis, Testamentum Vetus (unknown)

De S. Scripturae authoritate (unknown)

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Adversariorum methodus [English version]   (1685 February?)

Location:   British Library, Add. MS. 28,728, ff. 54-63.

Description:   On 14/24 February 1685, Locke sent his friend Nicolas Toinard a draft in English of his method of commonplacing [De Beer, ii. 811]. The manuscript survives among Toinard’s papers. Presumably Locke retained a copy of the draft, but this has not survived. Locke later prepared a Latin version, which he sent to Toinard on 30 March/9 April 1685 (see next item). Locke later arranged for a French translation (probably by Jean Le Clerc) to be published in the Bibliothèque universelle et historique for July 1686 [Locke #30].

The English version is entirely in Locke’s hand. The text takes the form of a short set of notes, organized according to the method it exppounds. It originally consisted of a single sheet of paper, folded to make a quire of eight leaves (ff. 54-61), each leaf measuring approximately 164 × 108 mm. It begins with an index (ff. 54v-55r; f. 54r is blank). The pages are numbered, beginning with f. 56r (blank); the dedicatory epistle to Toinard (“Epistola”) is on ff. 56v and 57r (pages 2-3); the text begins on f. 57v (page 4) and bears the marginal caption “Adversariorum methodus”; subsequent versos also have some form of this caption. The text eventually outgrew the pages available, and two new folded sheets were wrapped around the original quire, providing two new leaves at the front and two at the back. The first leaf (not numbered) was left blank; the second was cut away leaving a stub; the two new leaves at the end (ff. 62-63, pages 13-16) were used to complete the text.

Publications:

  1. “John Locke’s method of common-placing, as seen in his drafts and his medical notebooks, Bodleian MSS Locke d. 9, f. 21 and f. 23” / G. G. Meynell. // IN: Seventeenth century. – 8 (1993):245-267; the text is in Appendix I (pages 256-263).
  2. Literary and historical writings / John Locke ; edited by J. R. Milton. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 219. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke). – Pages 215-232.

Discussions:   Meynell, publication #1 above, pages 256-257; De Beer, ii. 811; R. Yeo, “John Locke’s ‘New method’ of commonplacing” (2004), page 11; Milton, publication #2 above, pages 27-56, 147-161.

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Adversariorum methodus [Latin version]   (1685 March?)

Location:   British Library, Add. MS. 28,728, ff. 46-53;
copy in Bodleian Library, MS. Locke c. 31, ff. 67-78.

Description:   On 30 March/9 April 1685, Locke sent Toinard a draft in Latin of his method of commonplacing [De Beer, ii. 818]. The manuscript survives among Toinard’s papers. It is clearly a later version, based on the English version (previous entry).

The manuscript is entirely in Locke’s hand. It consists of a single sheet of paper folded to form 8 leaves (16 pages), measuring 160 × 105 mm. It includes the “Epistola dedicatoria” (f. 46v) and the text “Adversarius methodus” (ff. 47v-53v. In place of the index is a note with instructions to adapt the Index from the English version.

Locke retained a copy which remained among his papers (MS Locke c. 31, ff. 67-78). This is clearly a copy of the version sent to Toinard, as it incorporates additions and changes into the main text. The manuscript consists of a quire of 12 leaves, each measuring 165 × 105 mm. Contents: f. 67r blank; ff. 67v-68r, the Index; ff. 68v-69r blank; ff. 69v-70r Epistola dedicatoria; ff. 70v-74v Adversariorum methodus; f. 74v Epilogus; f. 75r blank; f. 75v Notes on Asbetus, Acherusia; f. 76r blank; f. 76v Note on Kircher; f. 77r blank; f. 77v Note on Marshamus; f. 78 blank. Folios 69r-78r numbered 1-19.

Publications:

  1. Literary and historical writings / John Locke ; edited by J. R. Milton. – Oxford : Oxford University Press, 2019. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke). – Pages 233-250.

Discussions:   Meynell, publication #1 above, pages 256-257; De Beer, Letter no. 811; R. Yeo, “John Locke’s ‘New method’ of commonplacing” (2004), page 11; Milton, publication #2 above, pages 27-56, 147-161.

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Draft C of the Essay concerning human understanding   (1685)

Location:   Pierpont Morgan Library, New York, MA 998.

Description:   The third extant draft of An essay concerning human understanding; the surviving volume includes only the first two books.

According to the Morgan Library, the manuscript is an autograph, although Aaron reports that he and Peter Laslett were not certain. The text seems to be a copy of another manuscript, and itself includes corrections that are definitely in Locke’s hand. Draft C represents a considerable expansion on Draft B, but the text printed in 1689 is a further revision.

The volume is bound in vellum and measures 150 × 105 mm. The figures “1.2” appear on the spine, presumably indicating that the volume contains books 1 and 2 of the Essay. The flyleaf is inscribed by Locke: “For Edward Clarke of Chipley Esq James Tyrrell of Oakley Esq; or Dr David Thomas of Salisbury”; there is also a bookplate of Henry B. H. Beaufoy, F.R.S. and the inscription “H.B.H. Beaufoy from Forster; Aug. 27 1849” (see below for explanation). The title page reads: ”An Essay Concerning humane understanding in fower books 1685” followed by a quotation from Cicero. Each of the two books has a title page. The first reads: “An Essay Concerning Humane Understanding Lib: 1”; the second reads: “Liber 2 Of Ideas.” Page S8 of Book 2 is inscribed “Sic cogitavit JL” and bears Locke’s paraph. On the final leaf is a letter from Forster to Beaufoy, Bruges, 12 September 1849.

Each book comprises a separate set of quires; all quires are signed “Intellectus A” on the first page. Book 1 consists of 5 quires: A4 B9 C-E8. Book 2 consists of 20 quires: A-K8 [+ slip inserted after K4] L10 [a folded leaf inserted after L4] M-T8 V4.

The provenance of the manuscript is described in the letter from Thomas Forster to Beaufoy. The manuscript came into the possession of John [i.e., Benjamin] Furly who gave or left it to Forster’s grandfather, together with “a parcel of letters from Algernon Sydney, Locke and Lord Shaftesbury.” It passed Forster, who gave it to Beaufoy in 1849, as indicated in the inscription on the flyleaf. It was sold to the Morgan Library by the Rosenbach Company in 1924.

A microfilm copy is available in the Bodleian Library (MS. Film 57).

Publications:

  1. [Quotations:] “Draft C of Locke’s Essay / [R.I. Aaron] (1955)
  2. [Excerpts:] “Locke on power and causation : excerpts from the 1685 draft of the Essay / Ruth Mattern (1981). – pp. 847-939.
  3. Drafts for the Essay concerning human understanding, and other philosophical writings. Volume 2 / John Locke ; edited by G.A.J. Rogers and J. R. Milton. – Oxford : Clarendon Press, in preparation. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke) [Locke #942A]

Discussions:   Johnston & Laslett, “Locke’s Essay, a fourth manuscript” (1952); Aaron, publication #1 above.

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Hypothesis, Testamentum Vetus   [ca. 1685]

Location:   Bodleian Library, MS. Locke f. 32, ff. 1-14.

Description:   Notes by Locke on Richard Simon’s Histoire critique du Vieux Testament (1685), headed “Hypothesis, Testamentum Vetus”. One of the notes (ff. 11r-11v) is initialed by Locke.

Publications:

  1. Theological manuscripts / John Locke ; edited by Victor Nuovo. – Oxford : Clarendon Press, to be published. – (The Clarendon edition of the works of John Locke) [Locke #961]

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De S. Scripturae authoritate   (1685)

Location:   Bodleian Library, MS. Locke c. 27, ff. 69-72.

Description:   Latin notes by Locke on Sentimens de quelques théologiens de Hollande sur l’Histoire critique du Vieux Testament, composé par le p. Richard Simon de l’Oratoire [by Jean Le Clerc] (1685). The notes deal with chapters 11-12, in which M. N. [Noel Aubert de Versé?] discusses the inspiration of Scripture. The notes are headed “De S. Scripturae Authoritate. Contra les Sentimens de quelques Theologiens (p. 457)”

On two sheets, each folded once to form a total of 8 pages, 158 × 98 mm; f. 72 is blank.

Publications:

  1. “Testi teologico-filosofici lockiani dal MS. Locke c.27 della Lovelace Collection” / a cura di Mario Sina. // IN: Rivista di filosofia neo-scolastic. – 64 (1972):66-68.

Discussions:   Sina, publication #1 above, p. 64-65.

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